Operation Crossroads, Marshall Islands, 1946

Usage Conditions Apply
The Smithsonian Institution Archives welcomes personal and educational use of its collections unless otherwise noted. For commercial uses, please contact photos@si.edu.

Narrow Your Results


Filter Your Results

Smithsonian Secretaries Information

Close Browse records and papers of the Smithsonian Secretaries, from 1846 until today. Pre-set filters help narrow searches by individuals who have held that office.

Expeditions Information

Close Browse records and papers documenting scientific and collecting expeditions either affiliated with the Smithsonian, or with which Smithsonian researchers participated. Pre-set filters help narrow searches by geographic regions predominantly represented in expedition records.

Professional Societies Information

Close Browse records of professional societies closely associated with the Smithsonian, that focus on areas of scientific research and museum studies. Pre-set filters help narrow searches by major topics and disciplines.


The Crossroads Operation was an expedition to Bikini and the northern Marshall Islands in 1946 under the auspices of the Department of the Navy. Civilian scientists included staff from the US National Museum, Leonard P. Schultz, Curator of Ichthyology, and Joseph P. E. Morrison, Curator of Division of Mollusks. They studied the relative abundance of flora and fauna before and after the atom bomb tests. Specimens were collected for the purpose of comparison and to make possible a study of anatomical variations among the various island fish populations. The biological survey collected plants and animals on and around Bikini, Eniwetok, Rongelap and Rongerik Atolls.


Smithsonian Institution. (2013). Celebrating 100 Years : The Bikini Atoll Survey "Operation Crossroads," 1946-47. Retrieved on from http://www.mnh.si.edu/onehundredyears/expeditions/bikini.html

Date Range

1946 - 1946


  • Atomic bomb
  • Ichthyology


  • Marshall Islands
  • Bikini


Expedition name