The Bigger Picture: Visual Archives and the Smithsonian
Posts tagged with: slideshow
In 1925, 24-year-old high school teacher John Thomas Scopes was tried in Dayton, Tennessee, for teaching about evolution, in violation of a newly enacted state law.
During the first week of June 1925, 29-year-old Watson Davis, managing editor of Science Service, a Washington, D.C.-based science news organization, traveled to Dayton to meet Scopes. The journalist then returned the following month to report on the trial, which began on July 10.
On Monday, July 20, 1925, 19-year-old William Silverman, who had just graduated from high school in nearby Chattanooga, went to Dayton with one of his science teachers to observe the proceedings. Fortunately, like Davis, Silverman took along his camera.
This special slide show, weaving together the photographs of Davis and Silverman, is presented by the Smithsonian Institution Archives to mark the 90th anniversary of the Scopes Trial and to honor the work of two photographers who preserved these fascinating glimpses of people, places, and events.
- New Donation of Scopes Trial Photos to the Smithsonian Archives, The Bigger Picture blog, Smithsonian Institution Archives
- Tennessee v. John Thomas Scopes photographs, Smithsonian Flickr Commons
- Accession 10-042: William Silverman Photographs, 1925, Smithsonian Institution Archives
- Science Service collections at the Smithsonian Institution Archives
Over the last several weeks, the Archives has welcomed Heather Weiss, an intern with Project SEARCH. Heather Weiss came to us from successful experiences at the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, the Office of Fellowships and Internships, and the National Portrait Gallery, among others, and has been assisting the archivists and the conservators with a pair of different ongoing initiatives: a finding aid data entry project with the archivists and a rehousing project with the conservators. We wanted to highlight Heather's valuable contribution to our work at the Archives, and have invited her to share her thoughts about working with us.
Hi, my name is Heather Weiss. I am an intern at a program called Project SEARCH at the Smithsonian Institution. Project SEARCH, or PSSI, is a 10-month program designed for people with disabilities who are looking to find full-time jobs. As a part of the PSSI program, I have recently been gaining a positive experience in learning about the art of preservation. So far, I have discovered that preservation comes in many different forms, such as repairing an art sculpture, checking the lighting in an art gallery, dusting picture frames, and polishing the Plexiglas on artworks. But, my most recent positive experience to date is learning about preservation at the Smithsonian Institution Archives. Archiving is important, because when you preserve art and documents, then that means that you’re preserving a part of history. And while I am learning about archiving, I have also learned about data entry and rehousing folders into new boxes. When you’re rehousing folders, that means that you’re transferring older historical documents from older boxes and folders, and then putting those documents into new and more stable boxes and folders that will last longer. Data entry is when you take the data from a paper source and then digitize that source by putting it on the computer. Eventually, people will be able to look at the information once it is available. My favorite part of this experience is getting to see the history that’s been stored from different decades within the folders. I find it very amazing.
Heather's data entry for the archivists was a testament to her detail-oriented nature. It was meticulous work, and Heather's efforts will lead to improved finding aids of our collections. She moved quickly through that project, leading the archival team to work speedily to keep her busy! Heather also accomplished the conservators' first rehousing assignment in record time, changing out all the nearly one hundred acidic boxes of one collection (Record Unit 158: United States National Museum, Curators' Annual Reports, 1881-1964). After completing both of these tasks, Heather moved on to the next portion of the finding aid project, as well as a more complex rehousing assignment (Record Unit 137: Office of the Under Secretary, Records, 1958-1973) that involved replacing both boxes and folders, necessitating careful copying of folder information from old to new, as well as removing bulky and harmful clips and staples, safely rehousing photographs in photo-safe enclosures, checking the condition of documents and flagging them for later attention as needed.
We have appreciated Heather's willingness to learn new skills, attention to detail, and inquisitive mind. It has been a pleasure to watch her take on more difficult tasks as her time with us has progressed, and to play a part in her personal growth. We wish her all the best following her graduation from Project SEARCH, and know that she will be successful at whatever she puts her mind to. Good luck, Heather!
The first time I was introduced to Mary Agnes Chase was in her 1922 letters, and she was boarding a ship to Europe. This was post-World War I, and she was heading to Vienna, Austria to conduct work for the Unites States National Herbarium. My first impression was that she was rather blunt, and not afraid of speaking her mind. She is equally taken aback by the mostly German crew, the unabashed drinking on board the American ship, and the women smoking. Her blunt observations in her correspondence throughout the 1920s and 1930s show a woman who was disgusted with the way things were, and felt that some things needed to be changed.
Born in Illinois in 1869, Mary Agnes Chase was raised in Chicago where in 1888 she married William Ingraham Chase. Sadly William died from tuberculosis within the first year of their marriage. Mary started working for the United States Department of Agriculture in 1903, and over the years worked her way up from botanist illustrator to senior botanist. For most of her career, Chase worked closely with Albert Spear Hitchcock building the collection of grasses for the United States National Museum (now National Museum of Natural History). This work often required her to travel abroad, and she spent a fair amount of time in Europe and Brazil.
She had a keen eye that brought the countries she visited to light, both culturally and politically. Reading her letters is as much a history lesson as it is a botany lesson. She spent a great deal of time describing her daily routine, and not always in a flattering way. She was disappointed with the European train system, and her choice of words in 1922 is almost verbatim with what she says about it in 1935 in regards to how terrible she thought the porters were. Clearly the system had not improved enough to meet Mary's standards. She also had a bit of difficulty with relaxing and "letting her hair down." For example in 1935, she was upset that Easter was a week long holiday in France, and that she was not allowed to have a personal key to the museum.
Her letters from Brazil are lighter, and while she still was rather annoyed when distracted from her work, it seems there is a marked difference. In one instance she complains about her ankle holding her up having sprained it in the field, but her complaints have a laughter about them as if she is chiding herself for getting into that situation more than being completely incensed about it. I got the impression that it was the people of Brazil that warmed her up. Mary seemed to bond with them far more that she did with the Europeans. Some part of it could be attributed to post war prejudices, but I also get the impression that her work in Brazil suited her more. In Brazil she was doing field work on American grasses, her specialty, and she seemed to thrive in this environment.
From her letters you get a good sense of the woman who championed the causes of the working classes and suffragettes. But what struck me the most are the parts of Mary's life that we don't know about. Most of what we know conclusively about her started after Mary was well into middle age. Where is the young Mary Agnes Chase? Who was this woman other than a world class botanist? There are a few details in her letters about grandchildren, sisters, and family; however most of her private life is shrouded in mystery, and if you do research on her, you find few answers. How did Mary juggle her private and professional lives? Did she hand a child or children perhaps off to a sibling while she traipsed around the world in search of grasses the way so many male scientists did in her day? Did she promise to write to them when there was a spare moment?
The biographies that mention her marriage never speak of children. However, in a letter from July 5, 1935, Mary gushes over the birth of a new granddaughter. She was in a hotel room with Bob, apparently her grandson, who was visiting her in Paris, and older brother of the new granddaughter. She goes on to say how her child begged her to come to Geneva to see her new grandbaby. She goes on in an August letter to inform Hitchcock that she is extending her stay to go to Geneva to see the new baby. We now know that she has two grandchildren, but what about her children? Why is there so little discussion of them? Perhaps one day someone will discover a scrap of paper or a photograph of a young Mary Agnes Chase holding the hand of a small child. Her child. Until then we can only speculate.
- Formidable: Women in Science, The Bigger Picture blog, Smithsonian Institution Archives
- New Flickr Commons Set: Mary Agnes Chase Field Books, The Bigger Picture blog, Smithsonian Institution Archives
- Record Unit 229: United States National Museum Division of Grasses, Records, 1884, 1888, 1899-1965, Smithsonian Institution Archives
On February 11, 1927, the Smithsonian held the "Conference on the Future of the Smithsonian." Its purpose was "to advise with reference to the future policy and field of service of the Smithsonian Institution." Held in the Smithsonian Institution Building (or "Castle"), scientists, politicians and prominent individuals from across the country were invited to learn about what the Smithsonian was doing and to assist in determining a strategy for the Institution going forward. Staff were asked to prepare exhibits that illustrated their current research and information about the Smithsonian's history was shared followed by a luncheon. As a result of the conference, a new strategic plan was created for the Smithsonian.
It was a great endeavor to bring people from across the country to join in learning about the Smithsonian and to help guide its future to be sure. However there was another purpose of the conference; to increase the Smithsonian's endownment. In 1925, the Smithsonian engaged the firm, Tamblyn and Brown to help it with a capital campaign whose goal was to raise $10 million for the Institution. To this end, the individuals were invited based upon not only their interest in science and friendliness to the Smithsonian, but also based upon their ability to give. Additionally exhibits were meant to "illustrate present and prosed researches of the Institution" as well as to stress "wherever possible the ultimate economic significance" of the Smithsonian's research work. Attendees were meant to be informed of the important scientific research being conducted at the Smithsonian, but also be made aware of the impact that its research had in contributing to the economy.
Unfortunately two days before the conference was to take place Secretary Charles Doolittle Walcott passed away. Assistant Secretary, Charles Greeley Abbot, hosted the conference in his stead, but timing was not on the side of the fund raising effort. With the strategic plan finalized and preparing to launch the capital campaign, the stock market crashed in 1929.
- Record Unit 46 - Office of the Secretary, Records, 1925-1949, Smithsonian Institution Archives
- Proceedings of Conference on the Future of the Smithsonian Institution, February 11, 1927
- The Smithsonian, A Revelation, 1926, Smithsonian Libraries
On this day in 1972, the Renwick Gallery opened to the public. The Renwick serves as the home of the Smithsonian American Art Museum’s craft and decorative art program. The collections, exhibition programs and publications put forth by the Renwick highlight the best craft objects and decorative arts from the 19th century to the present. Presently closed for renovations, the Renwick will get a completely renewed infrastructure, enhanced historic features, and other upgrades such as an all LED lighting system. For now, until it reopens, here is a look at some historic images of the Renwick.
- James Renwick, Jr., Architect of Smithsonian Buildings, Stories from the Smithsonian, Smithsonian Institution Archives
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