The Bigger Picture: Visual Archives and the Smithsonian
Posts tagged with: Politics/Government
When people look back at this year’s inauguration ceremonies, they will remember an iconic image of that day. These images help us remember what happened, but also try to convey the mood and emotions that witnesses to the historical event feel. These images help tell our history. But what about the photographers behind the lens? How do they interpret the day and decide on what stories to tell?
Recently, I sat down with Smithsonian Institution Archives photographer Michael Barnes to find out. This year he will be photographing his fourth inauguration and has learned the best way to score the shot he wants.
Bellizzi: What inaugurals have you photographed?
Barnes: Both of President George W. Bush’s and President Obama’s first.
Bellizzi: What was your experience photographing your first inauguration?
Barnes: For the first [George W.] Bush Inauguration, I was stationed on 14th street and Pennsylvania Avenue. It was cold and rainy, and I had to get there super early. I made the mistake of not taking my gear home, and had to try and get to the Smithsonian to get the equipment. This was a good lesson to learn; now I always have my gear the night before. The roads get blocked off and it is difficult to get where you need to go. You have to get there early. At this inauguration I missed the swearing-in, because I was stationed for the motorcade shot. At this Inauguration the Smithsonian had about seven or eight photographers at the event and we had official stations and you could not leave your spot for hours. So, you could only take images from that spot. I tried to capture the general feel of the day, but stood there for hours to get the few seconds of the President passing by. I was told by secret service to leave, but showed credentials so I was allowed to stay. But, standing on marble for a few hours, it gets really cold.
Bellizzi: What was your second inauguration like?
Barnes: For the second one I was able to float in the crowd. I was just looking for people shots. People shots show the different reactions to the event and the day. I like to try and capture the joy of the moment.
Bellizzi: What was the most recent inauguration experience like?
Barnes: For Obama’s Inauguration I was on the National Mall. I wanted to capture the [Smithsonian] buildings to record them as the historical witnesses to the event. The Smithsonian is connected to historical events. I worked with Ken Rahaim that day. He wanted to get on to the top of one of the buildings, but anything on top of buildings has to be cleared. So he worked with Smithsonian security and secret service to get all of the permissions cleared. One of the challenges of the Inauguration is dealing with secret service and security. Security teams were in the towers of the Castle, and Ken had the clearance, but at the last minute the security team would not let him go, so he had to figure out an alternative location. I decided to take photographs on the [National] Mall between the Castle and National Museum of Natural History.
We spent the night before at the National Museum of American History. I had learned from previous inaugurations to spend the night. So I went and took shots of the Mall that night.
On Inauguration day, people were very nice. They did not stand in the gravel so I could still get around. It was cold that day. I wanted to show the people photographs again. Show the story of mother and kids trying to stay warm. She had the kids wrapped up, but got them up for the actual swearing in. The expressions on people’s faces were great. I wanted to capture people during specific moments of the speeches and their reactions to it.
Bellizzi: Was the cold a challenge from a photographer’s point of view?
Barnes: Dealing with the cold, equipment can get changed. When you go from inside the building to the outside, things can fog up. You need to adapt the camera to the element. Even though it was cold, things were fine that day, because I kept moving and was well prepared with lots of layers.
Bellizzi: Are there any other challenges to photographing an inauguration?
Barnes: Getting to where you need to be for the shot. Too many people, too many check points. The challenge is to get to the shot that you want to capture in time. But I like the challenge of roaming around and I will do it again this year.
Bellizzi: Do you work with other photographers to capture the event?
Barnes: We work out beforehand who will cover what area. But we work independently during the event. Photographers have different viewpoints. We have a plan of certain ideas of the types of images that we want to get. We try to get those, but the event also presents the opportunities for the images.
Bellizzi: Why do you think it is important for the Smithsonian to have these types of events covered?
Barnes: Because it is right at your doorstep. The events tell history, and we are about history. Anything that happens near the buildings, these images tell the story of the buildings’ history and the events that help shape it. The buildings set the scene and witness the event. For example there are so many marches for different causes. Whether you agree or not, it is important to know what the story is and capture the event so that there is some type of record.
Founding Father Benjamin Franklin once remarked in a letter to his daughter that the turkey would be better suited as America's national symbol than the bald eagle. He wrote, in 1784, "For in Truth the Turkey is in Comparison a much more respectable Bird... He is besides, though a little vain & silly, a Bird of Courage." Today, many laugh about the idea of the turkey as American's national symbol, but perhaps Franklin was on to something.
In 1918, when United States was in the midst of World War I, Washington, DC was all a flutter with the introduction of two unlikely patriots or turkeys, who eventually took up residence at the Smithsonian's National Zoological Park.
The first of these patriotic turkeys arrived in DC by train from Keifer, Oklahoma. J. A. Thomas sent the bird, a white domestic turkey, as a gift to President Woodrow Wilson. Thomas had heard that the East Coast was suffering a turkey shortage and did not want the White House to go without for their Christmas dinner. So the brave turkey, dyed red, white and blue, prepared to make the ultimate sacrifice for the first family. However, fate interceded and the turkey's train was delayed due to railroad congestion, so the bird arrived on January 4, missing the big feast. His fine patriotic feathers impressed the White House and, instead of being the dinner, this multi-colored turkey was given large quarters and a feast on his own. On January 5, President Wilson decided to donate the turkey to the National Zoo where he was placed on exhibit for all to admire.
The red, white, and blue gobblers' compatriot came to DC in May 1918. Famously known as "Col. Jake Dawson," the domestic turkey hailed from Dawson, Texas, where he helped raise $10,000 in donations for the war effort. In anticipation of a large Red Cross Auction being held in DC, Congressman Rufus Hardy presented President Wilson with "Col. Jake" in hopes that he would once again bring in the big bucks. On May 25, "Col. Jake" raised several thousand dollars at the auction. The buyer took the famous "Jake" and donated him to the US Army's Camp Meigs band, so that he could continue to share his patriotism with the public as the band's mascot. However, in June of 1918, Mr. R. C. Deming, Quartermaster Sergeant, Senior Grade, Bandmaster, wrote the Zoo's Superintendent Ned Hollister, that a taxing musical schedule made it difficult for the band to properly take care of "Col. Jake." The Zoo offered to take in the colonel, who was ready for some well deserved rest after raising $37,000 in his fundraising career. Not one to shirk his patriotic duties, "Jake" took up residency with Wilson's red, white and blue turkey, in a pen at the Zoo and the two birds continued to serve their country by bringing joy to Zoo goers.
Sadly, the following year, both birds passed away. The famous red, white and blue turkey died after coming down with an illness on February 13, 1919. His friendly fowl, "Col. Jake Dawson," passed away on March 6, 1919, due to issues arising from "close confinement," according to Head Keeper William Blackburne.
Though they did not represent the national symbol, these two colorful birds, helped bring joy to their country. So here is our salute, to the red, white and blue gobbler and his illustrious friend "Col. Jake."
- Record Unit 74 - National Zoological Park, Records, 1887-1966, Smithsonian Institution Archives
- Record Unit 365- National Zoological Park, Office of Public Affairs, Records, 1899-1988 and undated, Smithsonian Institution Archives
- Record Unit 386 - National Zoological Park, Animal Records, 1887-1976, Smithsonian Institution Archives
On November 14, 1922, George Gustav Heye opened to the public the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation in New York City to display his collection of Native American artifacts. Heye, a mining engineer, began collecting Native American artifacts while working in Arizona in 1896. The museum, founded in 1916, was located at Audubon Terrace and there was also a research branch in the Bronx where collections were available for research and study.
After Heye's death in 1957, the future of the museum was in doubt. Some thoughts were to transfer the collection to the American Museum of Natural History in New York or possibly for it to be purchased by businessman, H. Ross Perrot. Neither of these options came to pass.
It was not until the 1980s when discussions began with the Smithsonian that a home would be found for the Museum of the American Indian. On November 18, 1989, President George H. W. Bush signed legislation creating the National Museum of the American Indian as part of the Smithsonian. Today the museum consists of the George Gustave Heye Center in New York City (unfortunately because of Hurricane Sandy the Heye Center is temporarily closed), the Cultural Resources Center facility in Maryland, and the museum on the Mall in Washington, D.C.
- History of the National Museum of the American Indian, Smithsonian Institution Archives
In honor of Veteran's Day this coming weekend we want to take a look at the way the military has been represented at the Smithsonian, both in the past and present. Thank you to all the women and men who have served in the U.S. military forces, your sacrifice and service will be remembered. Please enjoy the slideshow.