The Bigger Picture: Visual Archives and the Smithsonian
Posts tagged with: Film/Video
- The delights of browsing the National Park Service's B-roll video archive. [via Motherboard]
- Now available online - University of North Carolina archaeologists and librarians produce an online catalog of artifacts. [via InfoDocket]
- Now you don't see that everyday - A CT scan of a 1,000-year-old Buddha statue shows the mummified remains of a monk inside along with rolls of paper scraps with Chinese writing where his organs would be. [via Colossal]
- Accessing the inaccessible - Drones used to create a 3D model of Christ the Redeemer statue on top of Corcovado Mountain in Rio de Janeiro. [via The Verge]
- 40 years in the making - A brief history of the building of the Washington Monument. [via The Libray of Congress blog]
- The National Museum of African American History and Culture published a new book, Through the African American Lens, that offer iconic images of black culture, activism and community in America. [via Time]
- New blog alert - bloggERS! - the new blog of the Society of American Archivists' Electronic Records Section. [via Lynda Schmitz Fuhrig, SIA]
- A piece of photography history - a 19th century photo album by Oscar Gustave Rejlander has been sold, but the United Kingdom has put an export ban on it in the hopes of keeping it within the UK. [via PetaPixel]
- For those of you old enough to remember - A look at a technological icon - The fax machine. [via BBC Future]
- That's Awesome! - An entomologist at the Natural History Museum in London is using LEGOs to build a device that holds fragile insect specimens. [via The Atlantic]
The Smithsonian Channel produces award-winning television programming that engages viewers much in the same way as the Smithsonian's museums and galleries do throughout the United States with their visitors. Just as the Smithsonian is working to digitize its collections for greater access and preservation, the Smithsonian Channel and the Smithsonian Institution Archives are also undertaking various efforts to ensure the digital preservation of these television programs.
The reformatting workflow for this project has been dynamic, and it should be. During earlier accessions of Smithsonian Channel programming, the progams were transferred on DVDs, numbering in the hundreds. In order to preserve the files digitally and prepare them for ingest into the Smithsonian's Digital Asset Management System (DAMS), the DVDs undertook a lengthy workflow process to ensure the highest level of playability and playback quality.
As part of the project's workflow, and best practices at the Archives, each disc is individually scanned using virus detection software. While this process is lengthy, it is critical to ensuring the security of the Archives' IT infrastructure. The next step in the workflow is to individually create .ISO images of each disc, which retains each program's DVD menu functionality. After creation of the .ISOs, the individual .vobs are extracted and converted to a single .vob using a command prompt script. This single .vob is then converted to an .mpeg, also using command prompt, to ensure the greatest playability across multiple software programs. This process is individually repeated for every DVD within the collection and can take months to complete.
After creation of the mpegs, the associated metadata must be created for each individual file in preparation for ingest into the DAMs. The metadata is applied to each file using Adobe Bridge; however, the metadata cannot be embedded into the actual video files, thus creating a sidecar .xmp file is necessary to hold the associated video file's metadata. Once this process is complete, the .ISO, .mpg, and .xmp files are entered simultaneously into the DAMs to ensure to proper parent (.iso)/child (.mpg and .xmp) relationships are maintained.
Throughout the entire workflow, upon initial receipt, after each conversion, and after upload to the DAMs, each file has been viewed for quality assurance, furthering adding time to an already lengthy workflow. In total, processing the collection of 136 DVDs within the accession took roughly 300 hours to complete.
In an effort to simplify the workflow, archivists from the Smithsonian Channel and the Archives met to develop a plan to achieve maximum efficiency with the preservation of Smithsonian Channel's programming. During the meeting, it was decided to test a pilot program wherein the Smithsonian Channel would send a number of .mov files through a secure server to the Archives to develop a new workflow based solely on the digital transfer of the Smithsonian Channel's programs. While not eliminating the original DVD transfer yet, this process significantly decreased the workflow and time involved in the entire preservation process.
With the transfer of the .mov files, the conversion process was removed entirely from the workflow. Further, the metadata can be directly embedded into the file header of the .mov files, eliminating the need to create a separate file for the metadata. For DAMs ingest, only the .mov file is needed, as opposed to the .ISO, .mpg, and the .xmp file. In essence, what used to take nearly 300 hours to complete could essentially be completed in as little as a day for a collection of programming.
By making the process of preserving the Smithsonian Channel programs simpler and easier, programs can be preserved more quickly and with less files to work with and a more straightforward workflow there is less likelihood for errors to be made. The collaborative effort between the Smithsonian Channel and the Archives is a prime example of two institutions working together in the effort of digital preservation.
- What are You Watching?, The Bigger Picture blog, Smithsonian Institution Archives
- And Action: The Ins and Outs of DVD Video Preservation, The Bigger Picture blog, Smithsonian Institution Archives
- Digital Video Preservation: Further Challenges for Preserving Digital Video and Beyond, The Bigger Picture blog, Smithsonian Institution Archives
- Smithsonian Channel records at the Smithsonian Institution Archives
- Thanks IMLS (Institute of Museum and Library Services)! With a grant from the IMLS, the Norman Rockwell Museum has made available online 50,000 photographs, some of which Rockwell used as studies for his paintings. [via OpenCulture]
- Also available this week are free downloadable files to print 3-D models of items found in the British Museum's collection. [via InfoDocket]
- An excellent question - Why does Netflix send Orange is the New Black to the Library of Congress on videotape? [via The Verge]
- Interested in audiovisual preservation? Here are a two posts on what's going on internationally when it comes to audiovisual preservation and also a look a two pioneers in digitial audio, Dietrich Schüller and Albrecht Häfner. [via The Signal: Digital Preservation, LOC]
- Check out this new website: Unboxing the Chomsky Archive, which offers a preview of some of the unique materials found in the collection of Noam Chomsky, professor emeritus at MIT, as well as a way to support the archival project. [via MIT Libraries News]
- Need some photographic inspiration? - Check out this video of photographer, Brian Gaberman, and his work with wet plate collodion photography. [via PetaPixel]
Collaboration. It's the one word that during almost every conference and pan-institutional discussion, everyone says, and hears, a lot. In fact, it's the theme of this year's Archives Month! But why is it so important to collaborate? Because collaboration allows for people with different knowledge and skill sets to come together to solve a common problem. At the Archives, we often work with other Smithsonian divisions and outside groups to solve complex problems in the field of audiovisual (AV) digitization and preservation.
A perfect example of collaborative work at its best is the AV Hack Day from this year's Association of Moving Image Archivists (AMIA) annual conference in Savannah, Georgia. During Hack Day, programmers and archivists came together to create open source tools that tackle common preservation problems that have been identified in the field of AV archiving. Some of the tools created include Hack Day Capture, a tool that works with a Blackmagic capture card and ffmpeg to digitize analog video, Video-Sprites, which eases the process of making web video more accessible, and Characterization Compare, which allows the user to see the outputs from EXIFtool, MediaInfo, and ffmpeg side by side. These tools and all of the others created during Hack Day are available on the AMIA Open Source Github page.
For the past several years, members of the Archives have worked with other government agencies to form a group called the FADGI (Federal Agencies Digitization Guidelines Initiative). The primary goal of this group is to create guidance for the digitization of still image and audiovisual materials that other archives, public or private, can use when making decisions on how to best preserve their materials. Last month, FADGI released file format comparison charts for still images and analog videos, as well as a set of case histories contributed from eight different units that detail how they are dealing with born digital audio and video content within their collections. The comparison chart for analog audiovisual materials provides information on sustainability, cost, and system implementation for the various codecs and wrappers that are currently being used to create preservation files.
Smithsonian divisions often collaborate with each other as well. Since the majority of the equipment in analog AV archiving can be hard to find, the AV archivists group (AVAIL) here at the Smithsonian created an internal registry of the different equipment owned by each of the divisions, so that we can work together to share resources. The list includes information on the number of decks of a particular type owned by a given division, as well as whether or not they are currently in working condition. This makes it so that when I come across a Hi8 tape in our collections, a format that we do not have a deck for, I can simply consult the registry and contact the appropriate division to see if their deck might be available for me to use. Through the AVAIL listserv, we have also shared our knowledge of different migration errors to help each other solve unusual problems.
Ultimately, it's important to collaborate with others in and outside your field because the knowledge of the many is often more comprehensive than the knowledge of few. Additionally, we are all working towards the same goal of preserving our collections in the best possible way, so working together allows us to optimize our resources and our time. How has collaboration helped you in your field of work?
- Smithsonian AV Archivists Tumblr
- The End of the Beginning: A Born Digital Survey at the Smithsonian Institution, The Bigger PIcture, Smithsonian Institution Archives
- Audiovisual conservation resources, Library of Congress
- Archives Month across the Smithsonian
Every year the Archives receives a variety of digital video for its permanent collections. Contents include Smithsonian Channel programming, museum events, and special ceremonies. The timing of one such video from Accession 13-266, Smithsonian Institution, Video Recordings, c. 2001-2009 was a nice surprise, as it is the 2-hour video of the opening ceremony of the National Museum of the American Indian (NMAI) from September 21, 2004, in Washington, D.C.
President George H. W. Bush signed legislation in 1989 creating the National Museum of the American Indian as part of the Smithsonian. The National Museum of the American Indian Act (NMAIA) allowed for a museum in New York, a storage facility in Maryland, and a flagship museum in Washington, D.C. The New York museum opened as the George Gustav Heye Center in 1994, which is named after the founder of the Museum of the American Indian in New York City in 1916. The Cultural Resources Center in Suitland, Maryland, which opened in 1999, serves conservation and collection storage needs.
Opening day of the Washington, D.C., museum featured a Native Nations Procession along the National Mall with thousands of indigenous peoples participating from all over the Western Hemisphere. There also were special remarks by Peruvian President Alejandro Toledo, U.S. lawmakers, and Smithsonian officials. The First Americans Festival also featured various musicians and entertainers. The opening brought together the largest known gathering of Native American communities in history.
U.S. Senator Ben Nighthorse Campbell said at the opening, “Senator Dan Inouye, my friend and colleague, to whom we owe so much, often says that Washington is a city of monuments and yet, there is not one monument to the native people of this land. This magnificent structure, which we are going to open today, is that monument and in it we will tell our story.”
The limestone building itself is curvilinear and was the initial design of GBQC and Douglas Cardinal Limited. The project was further developed by Jones, House, and Sakiestewa, along with the architecture firms Jones & Jones, SmithGroup in collaboration with Lou Weller (Caddo) and the Native American Design Collaborative, and Polshek Partnership Architects. There also was input from Native American communities. Important requirements were that it be a “living museum,” resulting in an east-facing main entrance, a dome that opens to the sky, and a 4.25-acre landscape that includes many plants and trees, as well as some ducks.
The cost of the museum was $199 million and it had 1.4 million visitors in 2013. The three facilities have the world’s largest collection of Native American art and artifacts from North, South, and Central America.
Nation to Nation: Treaties Between the United States and American Indian Nations launches on the anniversary of the museum’s opening on September 21.
Enjoy some of the highlights from the procession. Please note that some of the clips have some glitches in playback.
- National Museum of the American Indian history, Smithsonian Institution Archives
- National Museum of the American Indian opening, September 21, 2004, C-Span
- National Museum of the American Indian website from the Grand Opening Celebration, October 12, 2004, Internet Archive
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