The Bigger Picture: Visual Archives and the Smithsonian
Category: Smithsonian History
On this day in 1972, the Renwick Gallery opened to the public. The Renwick serves as the home of the Smithsonian American Art Museum’s craft and decorative art program. The collections, exhibition programs and publications put forth by the Renwick highlight the best craft objects and decorative arts from the 19th century to the present. Presently closed for renovations, the Renwick will get a completely renewed infrastructure, enhanced historic features, and other upgrades such as an all LED lighting system. For now, until it reopens, here is a look at some historic images of the Renwick.
- James Renwick, Jr., Architect of Smithsonian Buildings, Stories from the Smithsonian, Smithsonian Institution Archives
One hundred fifty years ago, the Smithsonian Institution was the site of a devastating fire that destroyed much of its early work. The Smithsonian was founded in 1846, using the bequest of Englishman James Smithson, to create an organization devoted to the increase and diffusion of knowledge. Less than twenty years later, its iconic Castle building erupted into flames on a bitter cold winter day. Workmen doing work in the Art Gallery on the second floor incorrectly installed a stove, inserting the stove pipe in a wall space rather then the flue out to the roof. For several days, hot embers spewed into the wooden attic floor and on the afternoon of the 24th, a huge fire erupted, leaving the Castle enveloped in a cloud of smoke. Reports focused on the destruction of the Smithsonian's treasures, such as art works, scientific specimens, Smithson's personal papers, and records of the Institution's early work. The Castle, at that time however, was also home to a number of people, and their lives were deeply affected by the fire.
Smithsonian Secretary Joseph Henry and his family lived in the east wing; Henry's wife Harriet, his three daughters Mary, Helen, and Caroline, and his son William. On a better day, the Henry family might be seen playing croquet in front of the Castle. Mary Henry described the fire and its aftermath in her diary. "Jan.25th I record in my journal tonight one of the of the momentous and saddest events of lives – the burning of a large portion of the Inst . . . I was sitting reading in the Library reading and surprised at the sudden darkening of the room went to the window and finding a thick cloud of smoke or mist obscuring the view I hastened from the room to discover the cause. One of the gentlemen from the Inst. met me saying 'the building is in flames you have but five minutes to save your property.' We immediately went to work packing books, etc. first clothing and then Father's library . . ."
Paleontologist Fielding B. Meek, an extremely introverted and deaf scholar, lived in a small apartment under the gallery stairs in the southeast corner of the lecture room. He had been working in an office on the second floor east wing, when the room suddenly grew very dark. He went to the windows thinking a snow storm had begun, only to find smoke swirling around the Castle. Meek ran for the water buckets that were kept at the ready in a lower piazza, near the document room, and grabbed several to assist with the fire. But he immediately realized that, on this bitterly cold day, the water in the buckets was frozen solid and useless. He saved what he could of his meager possessions and then ran to the study to remove manuscripts, drawings and books. Sadly, some of his few possessions were looted as they sat outside the burning building.
The day after the fire, Mary surveyed the damage: "The dismantled walls & towers rose high above us reminding us of the ruins of some English Abbey . . . We picked out way over the cinders & burnt bricks through the lecture room to the Picture Gallery. The remains of the dying gladiator lay scattered about – we picked up a few pieces but they crumbled in our fingers. The blue sky above us formed a beautiful roof but we dreaded storms . . . " Two men who helped with the evacuation of the building, explorer Lt. James Melville Gilliss and John Varden, who had founded an early museum in Washington, died within the next two weeks, probably due to their exertions. The fire occurred as the Civil War was coming to an end. The war had swirled around the Castle, and this additional trauma had a profound effect on all of those who lived and worked in the Smithsonian Castle. Eventually the building was repaired, programs reestablished and new artifacts collected, as the fire demonstrated that the Institution could survive severe challenges. Indeed, despite fires, floods, hurricanes, and earthquakes; despite wars and government shutdowns, the Smithsonian has grown into the world's largest museum and research complex where work is done to help shape the future by ensuring the preservation of our heritage, through the discovery of new knowledge, and though the sharing of our resources with the world.
In November 2014, the Smithsonian Institution unveiled a proposed Master Plan for the South Mall Campus to be implemented over a 10 to 20 year period beginning in 2016. The South Mall Campus includes the Smithsonian Institution Building (better known as "The Castle"), the National Museum of African Art, the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, the Freer Gallery of Art, the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, and a number of gardens located along Independence Ave between 7th and 12th streets.
Quite coincidentally, I recently came across some publicity materials related to the opening of Enid A. Haupt Garden. The Haupt Garden is a 4.2 acre space located on the south side of the Castle and one of the focal points of the Master Plan.
The Haupt Garden was conceived by Secretary S. Dillon Ripley and opened to the public on May 22, 1987 during the tenure of Secretary Robert McCormick Adams. The landscape design was a collaboration between architect Jean-Paul Carlihan, design firm Sasaki and Associates, landscape architect Lester Collins, and Smithsonian Horticulture Office Director James Buckler. The garden was named for philanthropist Enid Annenberg Haupt who contributed $3 million toward the project.
The Haupt Garden is actually a rooftop garden, 2 to 6 feet deep, above a subterranean structure known as the Quadrangle. The garden contains two pavilions and a kiosk which serve as entrances to the underground African Art Museum, the Sackler Gallery (featuring Asian art), and the S. Dillon Ripley Center (a meeting, exhibition, and office space). The three sections of the garden reflect the cultural influences celebrated in the adjacent architecture and museums. The eastern portion is a fountain garden influenced Moorish design. The western portion is inspired by Asian gardens with moon gates, two weeping cherry trees, and pools of water.
The central portion of the Haupt Garden exhibits 19th century influences in honor of the Smithsonian's roots and the Castle itself which opened in 1855. A colorful Victorian parterre has multicolored swags and ribbon beds which are changed with the seasons. Nineteenth century ornamental furniture, both antique and reproduction, from the Smithsonian's collections are displayed throughout the garden, including benches for visitor use. Reproductions of typical late 19th century American lampposts and fixtures line the paths. The main entrance features an elaborate carriage gate (the "Renwick Gate") based on an 1849 design by Castle architect James Renwick.
So what will happen to the Haupt Garden as the buildings around and below are revitalized? According the Master Plan Project Overview:
"The Haupt Garden is actually a green roof over the Quad and needs to be completely removed to correct chronic leaks. With the relocation of the Quad loading dock, the size of the Haupt Garden will be significantly increased. The new garden is likely to include more active, event spaces as well as areas of horticultural education and display and others for rest and contemplation."
- Record Uni 410 - Smithsonian Institution, Office of Public Affairs, Publicity Records, c. 1965-1974, 1987, Smithsonian Institution Archives