The Bigger Picture: Visual Archives and the Smithsonian
- A Springtime slideshow—a selection of gorgeous photographs of flowers from across the Flickr Commons.
- Movie studios are forcing Hollywood to abandon 35mm film, but what are the consequences of going digital? [via Jennifer Wright, SIA].
- The Library of Congress is celebrating Preservation Week with public events and many resources to help you learn to care for you personal collections at home.
- From our sister blog The Field Book Project blog—the remarkable travels and field books of naturalist Edmund Heller, and how the Field Book Project is bringing together his field notes, scattered across many institutions, into one place on the web.
- Milton Friedman on the future of capitalism, Ronald Reagan campaign speeches, and debates on morality—Pepperdine University’s Historic Sound Recordings collections contain some fascinating sound clips.
- The State Library and North Carolina State Archives has an Inform U. project—a group of tutorials online to help you with your digital preservation issues, as well as a series of video tutorials including the following on how to save your Facebook data [via InfoDocket]:
The Smithsonian Institution Archives receives dozens of inquiries every year from students and recent graduates about the archives profession and how to become an archivist. Since this is such a popular topic, we decided to make our responses to the most common questions available to a wider audience. While the responses below are intended to address the archival profession in general, they ultimately reflect my own experiences and those of my immediate colleagues.
What does an archivist do?
Archivists perform a wide variety of tasks. In a smaller archives, a few individuals may do everything while, in a larger archives, archivists may specialize in specific aspects of the work. Traditionally, an archivist works with donors or the staff of its parent institution to acquire new collections; organizes and rehouses collections (also known as processing); describes collections and writes finding aids; and assists researchers in using the collections. Some archivists specialize in the acquisition, management, description, and preservation of photographic or audiovisual materials or electronic records. Other aspects of the job may include records management, digitization, public outreach, writing, and teaching.
What do you enjoy most about your job?
I enjoy learning about a wide variety of topics within the collections I process. I also enjoy going behind the scenes and exploring our museums and research centers from the inside out.
What qualities are employers looking for in an archivist?
Many employers will be looking for applicants who can work both independently and on a team; demonstrate strong research and writing skills; exhibit attention to detail; are creative problem solvers; and show a natural curiosity. Many positions will require work with databases, digitization, electronic records, websites, or social media so a solid background in basic computer skills will be essential. Some employers may also be looking for knowledge of a particular topic related to their collection, such as local history or aviation. Intern, volunteer, or other hands-on experience will often be a critical factor in deciding which applicant to hire.
What degree do you need to be an archivist?
Many, but not all, employers will require a Master of Library Science "or equivalent." A Master of Library Science was a common degree for new archivists, but as traditional library school programs have evolved, many universities have renamed the degree (often combining the terms "library" and "information") or have created a separate degree for the archives, records, and information management (often called a Master of Information Studies). A very limited number of universities have even created a degree specifically for archival studies. Employers generally recognize that these degrees tend to be similar. When deciding on a graduate school, look at the types of courses that are included in the curriculum, not just the name of the degree offered. Other common graduate degrees held by archivists include public history and museum studies. Some positions may only require an undergraduate degree, but a graduate degree will likely be "preferred."
What other subjects are helpful in your job?
The research and writing skills gained through history, English, and other liberal arts classes are helpful. A second language can also be useful in a setting where non-English documents are found in collections. Archival collections can deal with any topic though, so there is no way to tell which subjects may be useful later. Some employers may require archivists to have a background in a specific subject matter while others will be looking at professional skills first and assume the subject matter can be learned on the job.
Should I become a certified archivist?
I am frequently asked this question and do not have a good answer. I, like most of my co-workers, have spent most of my career in the federal government which does not require certification for its archivists. I am not familiar enough with requirements or preferred qualifications at other organizations to advise on certification. Certainly certification can be advantageous in the job hunt, but obtaining (and maintaining) certification also requires significant time and dedication.
What recommendations do you have for a future archivist?
Whether you are just beginning your archival training or will be looking for a job soon, periodically check the job listings. Take note of the requirements and preferred qualifications for positions that interest you. More than any advice, these listings will give you a good idea of what skills and knowledge you need to acquire in order to reach your ultimate goals. Also, do not limit yourself to a specialty. Taking specialized courses will make you competitive for certain types of jobs, but, in addition, be sure to take fundamental courses in all aspects of archival work to meet the minimum requirements for the largest number of jobs. Finally, whenever possible, take courses from adjunct professors who also work in an archives. From these professors, you will often learn how to make decisions about priorities in settings where budget and staff are limited.
There have been several previous posts on this blog about archives and the archival profession including:
- Just What is an Archives, Anyway?
- Records and Information Management: The Archivist
- What Does a Photograph Archivist Do?
- What Does an Electronic Records Archivist Do?
There have also been several posts on preparing for archives, library, and museum careers on the Smithsonian Collections Blog ("Ask an Archivist: Advice Column" provides a list of related posts from the blog).
Unaffiliated with the Smithsonian, the blog "That Elusive Archives Job" provides extensive advice on searching and interviewing for jobs (no longer updated but still useful). In addition, the Society of American Archivists, ARMA International, the National Association of Government Archives and Records Administrators (NAGARA), the Association for Information and Image Management (AIIM), and the Association of Moving Image Archivists (AMIA) all provide extensive information about the archives, records, and information management professions as well as professional development resources, some of which are free.
Finally, the Smithsonian Institution Archives offers a limited number of internships and volunteer opportunities. Internships and volunteer positions in archives and related fields are also available from other Smithsonian units. See the Smithsonian Internship and Behind-the-Scenes Volunteer Program websites for further details.
Three new images were recently added to the "Chandra X-ray Observatory" set on the Smithsonian Flickr Commons stream. Below, Kim Kowal Arcand, from the Education & Public Outreach group for the Chandra X-ray Observatory, explains the origins of these images. As noted on the Chandra site, the "flight operations, mission planning, data processing and user support for the Chandra mission are carried out by the Chandra X-ray Center at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) in Cambridge, Massachusetts." The Chandra X-ray Center is part of a NASA initiative to make its space programs more efficient by encouraging expert teams located outside NASA centers to assume expanded responsibilities.The three new images recently added to the "Chandra X-ray Observatory" set on the Smithsonian Flickr Commons.
When the Universe came into existence about 14 billion years ago, the only elements were hydrogen, helium, and traces of lithium, beryllium, and boron. The heavier elements did not yet exist. Heavy elements are produced by nucleosynthesis--the fusion of nuclei deep within the cores of stars. At some point in time, the first stars were formed, and within their cores the fusion process created heavier and heavier elements; the most massive stars produced nuclei as heavy as iron. When the stars used up their nuclear fuel, they started to evolve.
The evolutionary processes of stars depend upon their initial mass. Mid-sized stars eject planetary nebulae, leaving a white dwarf core remnant. More massive stars explode as supernovae, leaving neutron stars or black holes at the centers of the supernovae remnants. The elements that were created within the cores of the first stars were ejected into space where they intermingled with the surrounding interstellar medium. This medium--the gas and dust between the stars--provides the raw material for the formation of new generations of stars. Eventually, these elements became incorporated into large clouds of gas and dust that condensed and formed protostars. And so the cycle of stellar formation (see 30 Doradus) and destruction (see RCW 86 and G350.1+0.3) continues--each new generation further enriching the interstellar medium with heavy elements that become incorporated into the next generation. We are just beginning to understand stellar formation and destruction--and how the Sun, Solar System and life on Earth are connected to this never-ending cycle.
For a more complete picture of this journey, visit the Chandra X-ray Observatory's Field Guide to X-ray Astronomy: Stellar Evolution.
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