The Bigger Picture: Visual Archives and the Smithsonian
It’s interesting to think about how shrewdly and often free still photography is used to get us to pay to watch motion pictures. Still photographs—often shot by special photographers on sound stages or on location, just after the live action has been captured on film—are essential and raw materials for the entertainment industry. They fuel our anticipation for movies that are about to open. They encourage fantasies about the performers who star in them. While most of those still images are small and encountered in newspapers and magazines or online, some others—depending on marketing budgets, real estate opportunities, and cultural preferences—grow in scale to become as big and attention-grabbing as the movies they’re designed to promote.
New York has Times Square with its glitzy barrage of images and light. In Los Angeles, an ever-changing procession of billboards lines the Sunset Strip in Hollywood, promoting this star, then that one, this movie, or that one. But more monumental in scale and melodramatic in content are the huge hand-painted and vinyl signs that, tower above busy urban intersections in India, one of the world’s leading producers of feature films. To understand what makes these signs so eye-catching, mind-boggling, and distinctive, we invited Preminda Jacob, associate professor of art history and theory at the University of Maryland, Baltimore County, to investigate the historic intersection of photography, painting, and the movies.
This is the second entry in a series celebrating National Native American Heritage month. We're highlighting photos from the National Museum of the American Indian’s (NMAI) Photo Archives, also available from the museum’s Collections Search website which includes a representative sample of NMAI's object and historic photo collections. NMAI holds a diverse photograph collection of over 90,000 historic images which range from daguerreotypes to digital images, and is considered one of the most significant collections of American Indian images.
The vast photographic collections of the National Museum of the American Indian reflect the monumental, and ultimately unfathomable, desire of the founder George Gustav Heye to possess as many objects as possible made by and representing the Native Peoples of the Americas. As part of his rather compulsive collecting activities, and with the influence of his associate J. Alden Mason, he emphasized the use of the camera as an essential aid for research. Four of his associates, Frederick M. Johnson, Dr. Frank G. Speck, Mark R. Harrington, and Edward H. Davis, were under contract to Heye to gather examples of material culture. Heye had noted the strengths and weaknesses of his holdings, and he urged his field agents to acquire specimens needed to form a comprehensive collection. These men would collect, as well as show objects “in the field” being created or used in everyday life. Johnson, of the Peabody Foundation at the Phillips Academy, Andover, Massachusetts, collected and made photographs in the 1920s and 1930s in a number of Indian communities in Canada.
In this image by Johnson, the Potawatomi man (possibly a Chief) Dick King is posed outdoors at the Parry Island Reserve, Ontario, Canada, in 1928, wearing a fringed hide or cloth shirt, and holding objects from the NMAI collection, 16/2617, a war club, and 16/2620, dance rattles, seen below.
Frank G. Speck, of Mahican descent, professor and Chair of the Department of Anthropology at the University of Pennsylvania, conducted fieldwork throughout his life, and focused his attention on the Algonkian peoples of the Eastern Woodlands. He was deeply interested in culture change and the contemporary lives of the people with whom he worked.
In this image, a portrait of the Pamunkey Powhatan woman Theodora Cook, taken in 1919 at the Pamunkey Reservation in Virginia, Speck shows Mrs. Cook wearing a traditional turkey feather neck ornament (NMAI object 10/5721), a headed headband looped over her arm, and wearing clothing of the era, a time of great change for the Native Peoples of the mid-Atlantic.
Perhaps because Heye saw himself as a self-made archaeologist, he was drawn to maverick personalities; among the most independent of his associates was Edward H. Davis, a transplanted Easterner, who took up photography and ethnology after he arrived in Mesa Grande, California, in 1885. Heye purchased a collection of Davis’ artifacts in 1915, after which Davis collected objects for Heye for nearly 17 years.
This Davis image shows the Desert Cahuilla woman Alena Levy (on left) adding arrowweed to the bottom of a large grainary basket (NMAI object 7/2271) in 1917, at the Torres Martinez Reservation in California. Here, the Cahuilla woman Flora Debears holds a rabbit fur cape or blanket (NMAI object 7/0698), photographed in 1917 at the Torres Martinez Reservation in California. Note the traditional sun shelter or ramada, and the pottery olla at her feet, compared to Ms. Debears’ contemporary clothing and boots.
George Heye hired Mark R. Harrington in 1908, who continued to work for the MAI until until 1928 when he left to join the staff of the Southwest Museum. Mr. Harrington traveled and collected extensively along the Eastern Seaboard, the South and Midwest, and in Cuba. In Mississippi in 1908, he photographed the Choctaw man Jim Tubby.
Mr. Tubby is wearing a beaded bandolier sash on his right shoulder (NMAI object 1/8863) and is wearing a cloth cap (NMAI object 1/8852) shown below, while holding game sticks and preparation for a stick ball game.
Looking back over the almost 100 years since these images were taken, it is easy to detect the desire of the photographers to contribute to human knowledge, and the reality of the great changes that had happened—and were happening—to the subjects of the photographs during the early twentieth century. The NMAI Photo Archives and the Object Collections work hand in hand to document and tell the story of Native Peoples of the Western Hemisphere.
For more information on this collection and others, contact the NMAI photo archives at NMAIphoto@si.edu. We also invite you to add your tags and comments to these photos on the Smithsonian's Flickr Commons photostream. To see over 70,000 objects, photographs, finding aids, and other resources pertaining to American Indians, visit the Smithsonian Collections Search Center.
Lou Stancari is the Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian.
As David Pogue recently reported in a piece, "Cameras That Dazzle, and Dismay" for the New York Times, as Christmas time nears camera companies rush to introduce new and compelling features and/or gimmicks to keep consumers buying digital cameras in this shaky economy. The number of digital cameras that will be shipped in 2009, in case you were wondering, is estimated to hover around 120 million units, according to one online estimate and that huge number doesn’t reflect sales of camera equipped phones.
Some of this year’s fancy cameras are going to be fitted out with just the kind of features you’d expect: longer zoom lenses, better image stabilizers, better video capability. But it’s some flashier new features that interest me because of what they reveal about our relationship to photography through the images we make. There’s a Sony Camera, called a party-shot “personal photographer,” that sits in a dock, swivels around, scans the room for people smiling, and then takes a picture. There are cameras that have blink detection settings, to make sure everyone is open-eyed and ready to be seen. Multiple LCD screens embedded in some camera bodies now allow both those in front and behind the lens to approve of pictures to be taken. One camera flashes a smiley face on its front side, to attract the attention of anyone about to be snapped. Another, a Samsung, goes a step further and in its “kid mode,” plays cartoon animations on the camera’s front screen to snag the attention of kids, or maybe anyone with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Also popular this year, cameras with built in micro-projectors that make slide shows and video showings possible, anywhere and on any sort-of-flat surface, so people can broadcast their own breaking news, on the spot.
But the feature that really caught my attention, something I read about on PC Magazine’s website is on a Sony/Ericsson phone that won’t be in the stores until early 2010. The new XPERIA X10 (communication = experience, right?), with its sophisticated face recognition technology, can identify up to five faces in any picture and then automatically link them, through the user's social network contact list, to the people depicted.
What strikes me is that these new digital do-dads reinforce the fact that the complex relationships between images, business, communication, news, and entertainment keep on morphing. It also makes me wonder what else we, in our wildest dreams as image producers and consumers, really want, and what Santa might be working on for later next year.